Tag: commercial real estate

Yield on Cost — a metric for real estate investors and developers

I had a question recently about a metric called Yield on Cost, aka Return on Cost and also sometimes called Development Yield. So what is it and when and how might it be useful?

Yield on Cost is very similar to cap rate, which you’re already familiar with, especially if you’ve followed my posts, read my books or taken my online course. It’s a metric commonly used by investors and commercial appraisers, and it’s the ratio of a property’s Net Operating Income to its market value. It looks at an income property at a point in time.

What’s the difference between cap rate and Yield on Cost?

Cap rate measures income in relation to the value of a property. Yield on cost measures income in relation to the total cost of the property.

Another way to think of Yield on Cost is as a forward looking cap rate.

Let’s try to make some sense of this by hanging some numbers on these words.

You decide you’re going to buy a property today with its 50,000 NOI at the market cap of 5% for \$1 million. But you see a value-add opportunity here to make improvements and to create value. You’re going to spend money to make money.

Specifically, you’re going to upgrade these apartments and raise the rents. Remember value-add is an opportunistic approach to investing. You’re looking for a better return, and almost by definition, higher return implies greater risk. So you want to try to get a quick read on whether that higher return – in your judgment – is going to be worth the greater risk.

You’re thinking of spending \$75,000 on improvements so you can bump up rents by 15%. Let’s see how that looks:

Now you have a new total cost for the property of \$1,075,000 – the purchase price plus the improvements — and a NOI that’s 15% higher than before, or \$57,500. Let’s use the Yield on Cost formula, which is basically a lot like the cap rate formula:

YOC = stabilized NOI / total cost

YOC = 57,500 / 1,075,000  = 5.35%

I believe you’ll see right away how this is just slightly different from the standard cap rate formula. With YOC you’re using the NOI as it is stabilized after you make your improvements; and you’re using total amount the property cost you rather than what you think it might be worth. Again cost, not value. So now…

Yield on Cost  = 57,500 / 1,075,000 or 5.35%

Your yield on cost is higher than the 5% market cap rate, and that’s what you want. You want a so-called spread between the Return on Cost and the market cap rate for your value add scenario. That spread is 0.35%.

The question that only you can answer is, is that spread worth the risk?

One way that might help you decide is to ask: What do you think the property is going to be worth after these improvements? For that you cycle back to the cap rate formula, because that deals with value as function of income. You’ll use the market cap of 5% with your new stabilized NOI

Value = NOI / cap rate

Value = 57,500 / .05

Value = 1,150,000

Its value now, after these improvements, is \$1,150,000, which is \$75,000 more than your total cost:

Value (1,150,000) minus cost (1,000,000 + 75,000) = 75,000

The math here is probably simpler than the decision itself. That decision rests on your subjective evaluation of the risk involved. How confident are you that you can raise the rents by 15% after spending \$75,000 on improvements? In other words —  You’ve calculated the potential reward, objectively. Now you must weigh that against the risks, — risks which you measure pretty much subjectively.

So to wrap things up… Yield on Cost is similar to cap rate except it uses stabilized net operating income after improvements and measures that against total property cost. It does that rather than weighing current NOI against current property value — which is what you’re doing with regular cap rate. Yield on Cost is extremely easy to calculate and it can be useful with value-add investments to get a sense for how improvements to a property will impact your return. It should also give you a sense as to whether the additional return is worth the risk.

Yield on Cost is often used by developers for a quick read on a potential project. Look for more about this metric in a new lesson I will be adding to my course, Introduction to Real Estate Investment Analysis.

In the meantime, if you’d like to watch my discussion of this topic in a video post, you can get that here:  https://vimeo.com/635351764

The information presented in this article represents the opinions of the author and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of RealData® Inc. The material contained in articles that appear on realdata.com is not intended to provide legal, tax or other professional advice or to substitute for proper professional advice and/or due diligence. We urge you to consult an attorney, CPA or other appropriate professional before taking any action in regard to matters discussed in any article or posting. The posting of any article and of any link back to the author and/or the author’s company does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation of the author’s products or services.

What Happened to Your Property Management?

If you’ve taken my video course, read any of my books, listened to some of the podcasts I’ve been on, then you’re very aware that I often rant about how important it is for you to account for just the real operating operating expenses when you evaluate the worth of a property — no more and no fewer.

There is one mistake I see really often, and I want to call it out here in this video blog.

Love Your Hat! What is Your Lender Really Looking at When You Apply for a Commercial Mortgage?

If you’re not an all cash buyer, then when you purchase a piece of income-producing real estate you’ll probably need to secure mortgage financing to complete the deal. It’s essential for you to understand what your lender is looking at when underwriting that loan.

And — If you guessed that he or she is not admiring your millinery —  ok then, stick with me here. I’m going to discuss briefly a couple of key yardsticks.

Of course, this short video blog post is just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to evaluating, financing, and acquiring a successful real estate investment.

For in-depth insight into on all the key metrics and methods, check out https://realestateeducation.net/

And you’ll find the software that will do all the heavy lifting for your analysis and presentation at https://realdata.com

The information presented in this article represents the opinions of the author and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of RealData® Inc. The material contained in articles that appear on realdata.com is not intended to provide legal, tax or other professional advice or to substitute for proper professional advice and/or due diligence. We urge you to consult an attorney, CPA or other appropriate professional before taking any action in regard to matters discussed in any article or posting. The posting of any article and of any link back to the author and/or the author’s company does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation of the author’s products or services.

NEW Version 20 of Real Estate Investment Analysis Pro Edition Software

We’re very excited to announce the release of new Version 20 of our Real Estate Investment Analysis software. This application has been the go-to solution for thousands of income-property investors since its first release in 1982.

(No, that’s not a typo. We’re proud to report almost four decades of enhancements based on users’ feedback.)

Version 20 has big new features and a whole new outlook on both development and investment properties. It has you covered on all fronts — buy and hold, build and hold, fix and flip, value-add — now you can model them all with one software program.

At its core, Real Estate Investment Analysis (REIA) is income-property investment analysis software for all who deal with commercial or residential income properties: individual and institutional investors, developers, brokers, lenders, accountants, portfolio managers, financial planners, builders, and architects.

It helps you make detailed income and expense projections, before- and after-tax cash flow calculations, key ROI measurements, partnership analyses, and a great deal more.

New functionality in v20 brings you month-by-month development cash flow planning, with drawdown construction loan for value-add, renovation, even construction from the ground up. Evaluate the development phase, then see how holding the property produces returns over time.

Get the full scoop here about new version 20.

The information presented in this article represents the opinions of the author and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of RealData® Inc. The material contained in articles that appear on realdata.com is not intended to provide legal, tax or other professional advice or to substitute for proper professional advice and/or due diligence. We urge you to consult an attorney, CPA or other appropriate professional before taking any action in regard to matters discussed in any article or posting. The posting of any article and of any link back to the author and/or the author’s company does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation of the author’s products or services.

RealData’s Commercial Income Worksheet

The Commercial Income worksheet in RealData’s REIA Pro software is one of its leading power features that makes it a stand-out tool for investment analysis.

It’s designed to allow you to enter income from any number of tenants with great flexibility, and to model a lease scenario of any size or shape.

In this video we’ll have a quick overview of how this feature works, and how it can help you when you’re evaluating a commercial income property.

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The information presented in this article represents the opinions of the author and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of RealData® Inc. The material contained in articles that appear on realdata.com is not intended to provide legal, tax or other professional advice or to substitute for proper professional advice and/or due diligence. We urge you to consult an attorney, CPA or other appropriate professional before taking any action in regard to matters discussed in any article or posting. The posting of any article and of any link back to the author and/or the author’s company does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation of the author’s products or services.

Opportunity Zones = Defer or Avoid Capital Gains Tax

The end of the year compels many people to think about tax planning, which in turn prompts us to highlight a feature of the new tax law that could provide significant benefit to real estate investors. It has to do with what are called “Opportunity Zones.”

These zones are economically distressed, low-income communities, and according to the Wall Street Journal the zones encompass almost 9,000 census tracts with a population of nearly 35 million. A list of the zones can be downloaded from this IRS page

In a nutshell, the benefit to investors is that they can defer the capital gains on an existing investment until the end of 2026 by rolling those gains into an Opportunity Zone project. In addition, they can avoid capital gains on the new investments in the zone if they hold them for at least 10 years

Like a number of provisions in the Tax Cut and Jobs Act, not all of the details were in place when the law was passed, but the IRS did in fact release regulations about this on October 19, 2018. Apparently there are still some loose ends and the IRS in their FAQ says they will be “…providing further details, including additional legal guidance, on this new tax benefit” over the next few months.

Those who enjoy parsing the tax code can peruse the current version of the regulations.  You can find more readable summaries at National Real Estate Investor or here if you have an online subscription to the Wall Street Journal

A key takeaway from the Journal article is that this tax break appears to have been designed to give investors reasonable flexibility. For example, it cites that “…as long as 70% of a business’s tangible property is in a zone, the business doesn’t lose its ability to qualify for the tax break.” The regulations so far don’t seem to have a lot of hidden trap doors or “gotchas.”

It would appear that this tax break provides an opportunity for investors to free up capital that is sitting dormant in properties they’re reluctant to sell because of what would otherwise be a capital gains tax burden. Now investors should be able to benefit from at least one if not two  tax breaks, and at the same time do something positive for their communities.

What do you think? Are you likely to pursue a project in an Opportunity Zone?

— Frank Gallinelli

View a sample lesson from my video course,
“Introduction to Real Estate Investment Analysis”

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The information presented in this article represents the opinions of the author and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of RealData® Inc. The material contained in articles that appear on realdata.com is not intended to provide legal, tax or other professional advice or to substitute for proper professional advice and/or due diligence. We urge you to consult an attorney, CPA or other appropriate professional before taking any action in regard to matters discussed in any article or posting. The posting of any article and of any link back to the author and/or the author’s company does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation of the author’s products or services.

Now earn a digital certificate with my video course, “Introduction to Real Estate Investment Analysis”

Professional education is a great thing. And being able to broadcast news of your success makes it even more valuable.

That’s why I’m announcing a new benefit to students who enroll in my course, Introduction to Real Estate Investment Analysis. I’m now awarding a digital Certificate of Achievement and badge to students who successfully complete the course.

Here are some questions you probably want to ask:

What does it cost? For my students: nothing. RealData is picking up the cost of issuing and hosting the certificate.

What do you mean by “digital certificate?” Your certificate will be hosted by Accredible.com, an industry-leading credentialing platform. As you’ll see below, it’s designed so you can share it easily.

Does that mean I don’t get a physical certificate to hang on my office wall? No, you also get a pdf version you can print.

• You receive a unique url for your Certificate, so you can share it with employers, clients, industry groups, just about anyone.
• You can share it on any of your social media networks with just a click on a toolbar.

Your personal certificate page includes a dashboard, as shown at the left. From there you can…

• Get the code to embed it in your website
• Email it to anyone

How do I obtain my certificate?Within a few days after you complete the work to earn your certificate, we’ll send you an email with instructions to access it. If you believe you’ve completed the requirements but haven’t heard from us, please contact us at mailto:education@realdata.com

I believe our online video course provides a solid educational opportunity for those who want to learn about real estate investment and development. I hope this digital certificate will recognize your efforts and will benefit you for devoting the time and effort to pursue that education. I look forward to contacting you when you complete your coursework!

Frank Gallinelli

New Lease Renewal Assumptions feature for REIA Professional

Making assumptions and entering data about commercial lease revenue — especially rollovers — was often a tedious undertaking. Until now.

Enter our latest game changer: REIA Professional’s Lease Rollover Assumptions

What is it?

Our new Lease Rollover Assumptions feature (LRA) is a way for you to store sets of parameters about different commercial lease rollover scenarios, parameters which you can use over and over when entering tenant information in REIA Professional. What is the probability that a current tenant will renew? How long do you think the space will be vacant if a tenant chooses not to renew?

You rely on our products to crunch the numbers quickly and accurately so you can make the best and most profitable commercial investment decisions. LRA brings you a whole new level of power and speed.

How it works

First, create a set of assumptions on the new LRA worksheet.  Enter values for months vacant, rollover probability, new and market rent, etc.

Then apply those assumptions to a tenant just by selecting the option on the Commercial Income worksheet:

How to get it

If you have a previous version, consider upgrading.  Upgrade costs can be found here.

We have a knowledgebase article which walks you through the setup and configuration of the LRA feature.

New Version of our Income-Property Video Tutorial

We’ve just released an updated version of our video tutorial, How to Evaluate an Income Property Investment with REIA Pro. We’ve given the video a serious makeover — additional content, better audio and graphics, greater emphasis on how to use RealData’s REIA software to perform an analysis — and have added a seventh video that provides an overview of some of the software’s more advanced features.

•    You get access to the web-based video series on our new e-learning platform. Watch it online at your convenience — on your desktop or mobile device.
•    The property analysis is based on a sample case study of a mixed-use property.
•    The series uses our REIA Pro product to analyze the investment, but many of of the features portrayed in the videos are found in the REIA Express edition.
•    The series is presented by Frank Gallinelli, founder of RealData, Inc.
•    Includes seven videos with over 2 hours of instruction

If you’ve already purchased the original release of this series, you’ll receive an email with instructions on how to get the new version at no charge. If you haven’t purchased it before, we invite you to download the case study and view a lesson-by-lesson synopsis.

New Podcast: Investing in Income-Producing Real Estate

I had the privilege recently of recording a video podcast with REICLub, where we discussed investing in income-producing real estate: deciding what kind of property you should buy, how to begin the analysis process, understanding the income stream, estimating value or worth, dealing with long-term projections, recognizing common pitfalls, investing with partners.

I invite you to view it here:

http://www.REIClub.com/FrankGallinelli

—Frank Gallinelli