Yield on Cost — a metric for real estate investors and developers

I had a question recently about a metric called Yield on Cost, aka Return on Cost and also sometimes called Development Yield. So what is it and when and how might it be useful?

Yield on Cost is very similar to cap rate, which you’re already familiar with, especially if you’ve followed my posts, read my books or taken my online course. It’s a metric commonly used by investors and commercial appraisers, and it’s the ratio of a property’s Net Operating Income to its market value. It looks at an income property at a point in time.

What’s the difference between cap rate and Yield on Cost?  

Cap rate measures income in relation to the value of a property. Yield on cost measures income in relation to the total cost of the property.

Another way to think of Yield on Cost is as a forward looking cap rate.

Let’s try to make some sense of this by hanging some numbers on these words.

You decide you’re going to buy a property today with its 50,000 NOI at the market cap of 5% for $1 million. But you see a value-add opportunity here to make improvements and to create value. You’re going to spend money to make money.

Specifically, you’re going to upgrade these apartments and raise the rents. Remember value-add is an opportunistic approach to investing. You’re looking for a better return, and almost by definition, higher return implies greater risk. So you want to try to get a quick read on whether that higher return – in your judgment – is going to be worth the greater risk.

You’re thinking of spending $75,000 on improvements so you can bump up rents by 15%. Let’s see how that looks:

Now you have a new total cost for the property of $1,075,000 – the purchase price plus the improvements — and a NOI that’s 15% higher than before, or $57,500. Let’s use the Yield on Cost formula, which is basically a lot like the cap rate formula:

YOC = stabilized NOI / total cost

YOC = 57,500 / 1,075,000  = 5.35%

I believe you’ll see right away how this is just slightly different from the standard cap rate formula. With YOC you’re using the NOI as it is stabilized after you make your improvements; and you’re using total amount the property cost you rather than what you think it might be worth. Again cost, not value. So now…

Yield on Cost  = 57,500 / 1,075,000 or 5.35%

Your yield on cost is higher than the 5% market cap rate, and that’s what you want. You want a so-called spread between the Return on Cost and the market cap rate for your value add scenario. That spread is 0.35%.

The question that only you can answer is, is that spread worth the risk?

One way that might help you decide is to ask: What do you think the property is going to be worth after these improvements? For that you cycle back to the cap rate formula, because that deals with value as function of income. You’ll use the market cap of 5% with your new stabilized NOI

Value = NOI / cap rate

Value = 57,500 / .05 

Value = 1,150,000

Its value now, after these improvements, is $1,150,000, which is $75,000 more than your total cost:

Value (1,150,000) minus cost (1,000,000 + 75,000) = 75,000

The math here is probably simpler than the decision itself. That decision rests on your subjective evaluation of the risk involved. How confident are you that you can raise the rents by 15% after spending $75,000 on improvements? In other words —  You’ve calculated the potential reward, objectively. Now you must weigh that against the risks, — risks which you measure pretty much subjectively.

So to wrap things up… Yield on Cost is similar to cap rate except it uses stabilized net operating income after improvements and measures that against total property cost. It does that rather than weighing current NOI against current property value — which is what you’re doing with regular cap rate. Yield on Cost is extremely easy to calculate and it can be useful with value-add investments to get a sense for how improvements to a property will impact your return. It should also give you a sense as to whether the additional return is worth the risk.

Yield on Cost is often used by developers for a quick read on a potential project. Look for more about this metric in a new lesson I will be adding to my course, Introduction to Real Estate Investment Analysis.

In the meantime, if you’d like to watch my discussion of this topic in a video post, you can get that here:  https://vimeo.com/635351764

Copyright 2021,  Frank Gallinelli and RealData® Inc. All Rights Reserved

The information presented in this article represents the opinions of the author and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of RealData® Inc. The material contained in articles that appear on realdata.com is not intended to provide legal, tax or other professional advice or to substitute for proper professional advice and/or due diligence. We urge you to consult an attorney, CPA or other appropriate professional before taking any action in regard to matters discussed in any article or posting. The posting of any article and of any link back to the author and/or the author’s company does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation of the author’s products or services.

 

What Happened to Your Property Management?

If you’ve taken my video course, read any of my books, listened to some of the podcasts I’ve been on, then you’re very aware that I often rant about how important it is for you to account for just the real operating operating expenses when you evaluate the worth of a property — no more and no fewer.

There is one mistake I see really often, and I want to call it out here in this video blog.

 

Copyright 2021,  Frank Gallinelli and RealData® Inc. All Rights Reserved
The information presented in this article represents the opinions of the author and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of RealData® Inc. The material contained in articles that appear on realdata.com is not intended to provide legal, tax or other professional advice or to substitute for proper professional advice and/or due diligence. We urge you to consult an attorney, CPA or other appropriate professional before taking any action in regard to matters discussed in any article or posting. The posting of any article and of any link back to the author and/or the author’s company does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation of the author’s products or services.

Love Your Hat! What is Your Lender Really Looking at When You Apply for a Commercial Mortgage?

If you’re not an all cash buyer, then when you purchase a piece of income-producing real estate you’ll probably need to secure mortgage financing to complete the deal. It’s essential for you to understand what your lender is looking at when underwriting that loan.

And — If you guessed that he or she is not admiring your millinery —  ok then, stick with me here. I’m going to discuss briefly a couple of key yardsticks.

Of course, this short video blog post is just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to evaluating, financing, and acquiring a successful real estate investment.

For in-depth insight into on all the key metrics and methods, check out https://realestateeducation.net/

And you’ll find the software that will do all the heavy lifting for your analysis and presentation at https://realdata.com

 

Copyright 2021,  Frank Gallinelli and RealData® Inc. All Rights Reserved

The information presented in this article represents the opinions of the author and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of RealData® Inc. The material contained in articles that appear on realdata.com is not intended to provide legal, tax or other professional advice or to substitute for proper professional advice and/or due diligence. We urge you to consult an attorney, CPA or other appropriate professional before taking any action in regard to matters discussed in any article or posting. The posting of any article and of any link back to the author and/or the author’s company does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation of the author’s products or services.

Video post: Understanding Net Operating Income, Part 2

In Part 1 this post, we looked at the revenue side of our NOI calculation. Now let’s look at the expense side, and how the end result – the NOI itself, is typically used when evaluating a potential real estate investment. Click the image below.

 

If you missed Part 1, you can watch it here.

Copyright 2021,  Frank Gallinelli and RealData® Inc. All Rights Reserved

The information presented in this article represents the opinions of the author and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of RealData® Inc. The material contained in articles that appear on realdata.com is not intended to provide legal, tax or other professional advice or to substitute for proper professional advice and/or due diligence. We urge you to consult an attorney, CPA or other appropriate professional before taking any action in regard to matters discussed in any article or posting. The posting of any article and of any link back to the author and/or the author’s company does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation of the author’s products or services.

Video post: Understanding Net Operating Income, Part 1

One topic that seems to generate a lot of interest and questions among investors I speak with is the subject of net operating income. Those who are new to real estate investing and even those with some experience are often unclear as to exactly what it is, what it means, and how to use it.

To shed some light on this topic, I’m going to try something new here – new for me at least – a video blog post. I’ll try to answer those questions by giving you a basic roadmap of how Net Operating Income is calculated, and how it’s used in real investment situations. So —  here we go with Part 1 of 2. Click the image below.

net operating income

 

Part 2 is now available here.

 

Copyright 2021,  Frank Gallinelli and RealData® Inc. All Rights Reserved

The information presented in this article represents the opinions of the author and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of RealData® Inc. The material contained in articles that appear on realdata.com is not intended to provide legal, tax or other professional advice or to substitute for proper professional advice and/or due diligence. We urge you to consult an attorney, CPA or other appropriate professional before taking any action in regard to matters discussed in any article or posting. The posting of any article and of any link back to the author and/or the author’s company does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation of the author’s products or services.

 

NEW Version 20 of Real Estate Investment Analysis Pro Edition Software

We’re very excited to announce the release of new Version 20 of our Real Estate Investment Analysis software. This application has been the go-to solution for thousands of income-property investors since its first release in 1982.

(No, that’s not a typo. We’re proud to report almost four decades of enhancements based on users’ feedback.)

Version 20 has big new features and a whole new outlook on both development and investment properties. It has you covered on all fronts — buy and hold, build and hold, fix and flip, value-add — now you can model them all with one software program.

At its core, Real Estate Investment Analysis (REIA) is income-property investment analysis software for all who deal with commercial or residential income properties: individual and institutional investors, developers, brokers, lenders, accountants, portfolio managers, financial planners, builders, and architects.

It helps you make detailed income and expense projections, before- and after-tax cash flow calculations, key ROI measurements, partnership analyses, and a great deal more.

New functionality in v20 brings you month-by-month development cash flow planning, with drawdown construction loan for value-add, renovation, even construction from the ground up. Evaluate the development phase, then see how holding the property produces returns over time.

Get the full scoop here about new version 20.

Copyright 2020, RealData® Inc. All Rights Reserved

The information presented in this article represents the opinions of the author and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of RealData® Inc. The material contained in articles that appear on realdata.com is not intended to provide legal, tax or other professional advice or to substitute for proper professional advice and/or due diligence. We urge you to consult an attorney, CPA or other appropriate professional before taking any action in regard to matters discussed in any article or posting. The posting of any article and of any link back to the author and/or the author’s company does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation of the author’s products or services.

New content in my online video course

Those of you who are already enrolled in my course, Introduction to Real Estate Investment Analysis, are probably aware that I’ve been regularly adding new content to the course over time.

My most recent addition is a lesson on “Phantom Income.” The lesson discusses how and when it might be possible for your taxable income to outpace your cash flow. Probably something you’d prefer to avoid if you could.

New content like this is always available at no charge to those who are enrolled in the course, but for a limited time this new lesson will be my treat to anyone who would like to view it.

So, even if you’re not already enrolled, just go to the course home page, and scroll down about two-thirds, past my smiling face, until you see the curriculum. You can find the lesson in the middle of the section called Real Estate Pro Formas. Click the Preview button to watch.


In case you missed it, I also added a three-part series this summer called, “Blend and Extend.” 

This is a technique that landlords and tenants have used during difficult times in the past — a technique where a bit of give and take could potentially benefit both parties. A timely topic, I believe, given the upheaval in commercial real estate during the pandemic.

I’m making the first video in the series available as a free preview. Again, go to the curriculum, but this time expand it and scroll to the very bottom to find “Blend and Extend.” That’s where you can preview Part 1.

In the two remaining lesson in this series, I go into more specifics about the ways you might actually run the numbers on a possible lease restructuring to find a scenario acceptable to both sides. I include examples was well as an Excel model that should help you with the calculations.

Since the original release of the course, I’ve added a great deal to my core content, including a series of case study examples, as well as modules on partnerships, development projects, and value-add investments.

But I’m always enthusiastic about broadening the scope of the learning you can derive and the benefits you can reap from the course. Do you have an idea for an additional topic you’d like to see? If so, please pass along your suggestion in the comments section! Thank you.

— Frank G

Copyright 2020,  Frank Gallinelli and RealData® Inc. All Rights Reserved

The information presented in this article represents the opinions of the author and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of RealData® Inc. The material contained in articles that appear on realdata.com is not intended to provide legal, tax or other professional advice or to substitute for proper professional advice and/or due diligence. We urge you to consult an attorney, CPA or other appropriate professional before taking any action in regard to matters discussed in any article or posting. The posting of any article and of any link back to the author and/or the author’s company does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation of the author’s products or services.

RealData’s Commercial Income Worksheet

The Commercial Income worksheet in RealData’s REIA Pro software is one of its leading power features that makes it a stand-out tool for investment analysis.

It’s designed to allow you to enter income from any number of tenants with great flexibility, and to model a lease scenario of any size or shape.

In this video we’ll have a quick overview of how this feature works, and how it can help you when you’re evaluating a commercial income property.

Click here to watch

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Copyright 2020,  Frank Gallinelli and RealData® Inc. All Rights Reserved

The information presented in this article represents the opinions of the author and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of RealData® Inc. The material contained in articles that appear on realdata.com is not intended to provide legal, tax or other professional advice or to substitute for proper professional advice and/or due diligence. We urge you to consult an attorney, CPA or other appropriate professional before taking any action in regard to matters discussed in any article or posting. The posting of any article and of any link back to the author and/or the author’s company does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation of the author’s products or services.

“The Top 10 Real Estate Finance Books Every Investor Should Read.”

investment book

I was honored to find that one of my books was featured at the top of a recent article on Motley Fool: “The Top 10 Real Estate Finance Books Every Investor Should Read.” The book, “What Every Real Estate Investor Needs to Know About Cash Flow,” was originally published in 2004, is now in its third edition, and is alive and still doing well —  a surprise certainly to me, and probably to the publisher as well.

I often get asked what accounts for the book’s long-term appeal, and I think there may be two reasons: First, I avoided “topical” or trendy content, preferring to stick with core concepts and math-based metrics don’t change with time. And second because I really dislike the get-rich quick hype that seems to characterize so many real estate books, and so I shunned that, too.

I don’t think they’ll ever make a movie out of it, but I’m satisfied if it has helped some readers make informed and unemotional investment decisions.

You can find the article here.

The RealData Software Menu — A Tool to Streamline Your Work

Have you ever had to scramble around a large DIY Excel model to find some key piece of information? Or churned out a ream of paper trying to format a report that a human could actually read?

We’ve all been there. And that’s why we built a unique menu that automatically adds itself to Excel when you run a RealData program.

In this video, we’ll show you how you can use that menu to streamline and simplify your real estate analysis work when you’re using RealData software.

Click here to watch.

In this video, we’ll show you how to use the custom menu that we add to your Excel toolbar whenever you’re using RealData software. It can really make your job a lot easier, especially when you’re working with a powerful program like our Real Estate Investment Analysis, Pro. Edition.

This is the third in our series demonstrating key features of RealData’s software for real estate investors and developers. More to come.

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Copyright 2020,  Frank Gallinelli and RealData® Inc. All Rights Reserved

The information presented in this article represents the opinions of the author and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of RealData® Inc. The material contained in articles that appear on realdata.com is not intended to provide legal, tax or other professional advice or to substitute for proper professional advice and/or due diligence. We urge you to consult an attorney, CPA or other appropriate professional before taking any action in regard to matters discussed in any article or posting. The posting of any article and of any link back to the author and/or the author’s company does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation of the author’s products or services.